Male Hypogonadism

Male hypogonadism (MH) is a condition that arises when the testicles do not produce adequate quantities of the male hormone testosterone, sperm, or both. In men, testosterone helps maintain and develop:

  • Sexual features
  • Muscle mass
  • Adequate levels of red blood cells
  • Bone density
  • Sense of well-being
  • Sexual and reproductive function

Hypogonadism may occur at any age, and the risks differ, according to when it starts.


Most cases of this condition respond well to appropriate medical treatment.


Hypogonadism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions.

Additional Information

Causes & Risk Factors

The causes of primary hypogonadism include:

  • autoimmune disorders
  • genetic disorders
  • severe infections,
  • liver and kidney diseases
  • Undescended testes
  • radiation exposure
  • surgery on your sexual organs

In second hypogonadism, the problem is believed to lie in your brain.


If an individual is at risk of or may have hypogonadism, a urologist will do a thorough medical history and carry out a physical examination, including blood tests. It may take several measurements to determine if a patient has low testosterone since levels tend to change throughout the day.


The treatment of MH involves lifestyle modification as well as medical therapy. Patients with pituitary tumours may require surgery. Lifestyle modifications include weight loss programs, cessation of smoking, and increasing exercise. Medical treatment requires testosterone supplementation, and your doctor will advise which form of testosterone replacement will best work for you.

You can get testosterone replacement therapy by:

  • injection
  • patch
  • gel
  • lozenge
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